The classical Greek noun for beauty was κάλλος, kallos, and the adjective for beautiful was καλός, kalos,
The Koine Greek word for beautiful was ὡραῖος, hōraios, an adjective etymologically coming from the word ὥρα, hōra, meaning hour. In Koine Greek, beauty was thus associated with being of one’s hour. Thus, a ripe fruit was considered beautiful, whereas a young woman trying to appear older or an older woman trying to appear younger would not be considered beautiful. In Attic Greek, hōraios had many meanings, including youthful and ripe old age.
A strong indicator of physical beauty is averageness, or koinophilia. When images of human faces are averaged together to form a composite image, they become progressively closer to the ideal image and are perceived as more attractive. Researchers have replicated the result under more controlled conditions and found that the computer generated, mathematical average of a series of faces is rated more favourably than individual faces.
Evolutionarily, it makes logical sense that sexual creatures should be attracted to mates who possess predominantly common or average features A feature of beautiful women that has been explored by researchers is a waist–hip ratio of approximately 0.70. Physiologists have shown that women with hourglass figures are more fertile than other women due to higher levels of certain female hormones, a fact that may subconsciously condition males choosing mates.
It is a universal feature of sexual populations that individuals prefer mates with typical rather than rare characteristics, essentially because most mutations reduce fitness. Panmixis however may increase sexual drive. It is the selfish individual who always wins.
The nature of beauty is one of the most enduring and controversial themes in Western philosophy, and is, with the nature of art, one of the two basic issues in philosophical aesthetics:
- The Idealist Conception
- It’s Objectivity and Subjectivity
- Use and Uselessness
- Love and Longing
- Hedonist Conceptions
- The Classical Conception
In the aftermath of postmodernism’s vague attitude to beauty, thinkers have returned to beauty as an important value. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. An ideal beauty is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture
image: woman – unknown rejuvenated by T-werki 2015