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fragmentation – coolinarism
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fragmentation

fragmentation

→actions or conditions that impair seamless connectivity among the willing constitute fragmentation←

Telecommunications and information services treated the Internet as an unregulated application. The common view was that, Limited government intervention is a major reason why the Internet has grown so rapidly in the US. One estimate is that by 2016, the Internet economy will be worth $4.2 trillion in the G-20 countries alone title

 

On the eve of the 21st century there were now two interlinked but different worlds. On the one hand, there was the real world with an old economy and traditional borders, limited natural resources and classical business models. Here there were borders regulated by sovereign states on the basis of national interests. On the other hand, there was the virtual world with a new economy, borderless cyberspace, unlimited virtual resources (IP addresses, domain names), resources that can be reused (digital content), and innovative business models in which quantity, distance and duration did not play a role anymore. This was the borderless space managed by a multistakeholder community on the basis of universal values. Some analysts even speculated about the erosion of the international system of sovereign nation-states. But the nation-state system did not disappear. A distinction is made between cases of technical, commercial and governmental fragmentation:

Technical Fragmentation
Conditions in the underlying infrastructure that impede the ability of systems to fully interoperate and exchange data packets and of the Internet to function consistently at all end points.When the Internet concept was first articulated, a guiding vision was that every device on the Internet should be able to exchange packets with any other device. Universal connectivity was assumed to be a primary benefit. But there are a variety of ways in which the original concept has been eroded through a complex evolutionary process that has unfolded slowly but is gathering pockets of steam in the contemporary era,

Commercial Fragmentation
Business practices that constrain or prevent certain uses of the Internet to create, distribute, or access information resources. A variety of critics have charged that certain commercial practices by technology companies also may contribute to Internet fragmentation. The nature of the alleged fragmentation often pertains to the organisation of specific markets and digital spaces and the experiences of users that choose to participate in them, but sometimes it can impact the technical infrastructure and operational environments for everyone,

Governmental Fragmentation
Government policies and actions that constrain or prevent certain uses of the Internet to create, distribute, or access information resources.The most common imagery of “governmental fragmentation” is of the global public Internet being divided into digitally bordered “national Internets”. Movement in the direction of national segmentation could entail, inter alia, establishing barriers that impede Internet technical functions, or block the flow of information and e-commerce over the infrastructure,

↓ kinds of fragmentation ↓

  • Network Address Translation
  • IPv4 and IPv6 incompatibility and the dual-stack requirement
  • Routing corruption
  • Firewall protections
  • Virtual private network isolation and blocking
  • Onion space and the dark web
  • Internationalized Domain Name technical errors
  • Blocking of new gTLDs
  • Private name servers and the split-horizon DNS
  • Segmented Wi-Fi services
  • Possibility of significant alternate DNS roots
  • Certificate authorities producing false certificates
  • Potential proprietary technical standards impeding interoperability in the IoT
  • Blocking, throttling, or other discriminatory departures from network neutrality
  • Walled gardens
  • Geo-blocking of content
  • Potential use of naming and numbering
  • Filtering and blocking websites, social networks or other resource
  • Attacks on information resources offering undesired contents
  • Digital protectionism blocking users
  • Centralizing and terminating international interconnection
  • Attacks on national networks and key assets
  • Local data processing and/or retention requirements
  • Architectural or routing changes to keep data flows within a territory
  • Prohibitions on the trans-border movement of certain categories of data
  • International frameworks intended to legitimize restrictive practices
  • Strategies to construct national Internet segments or cybersovereignty
reference: Internet Fragmentation: An Overview Future of the Internet Initiative White Paper WEC Davos 2016
                 William J. Drake, Vinton G. Cerf, Wolfgang Kleinwächter – excerpts  

image: The Programma 101 was the first commercial desktop personal computer, produced by the Italian company Olivetti in 1962

t-penned by netize R
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